As many people begin to question whether the centre of Anglicanism can remain at Canterbury I have the privilege of visiting with Archbishop Justin Badi Arama, who will be hosting his name sake next Monday in Juba while the Pope meets the local Catholic hierarchy. This is will be a challenging meeting for the Archbishop of Canterbury. In a recent GSFA press release the South Sudanese Archbishop made no secret that he is calling the English Archbishop to repent. Many are wondering if, as chair of the Global South Fellowship of Anglicans (comprising 75% of practising Anglicans and still expanding), Justin Badi Arama might represent a new centre for historic anglicanism. If that might be the case it is key to ask what does Anglicanism mean to him…? So I listen and learn (and gulp a bit as I am challenged)… so see what you think.

IF the General Synod of the Church of England affirms the House of Bishops’ recommendations to ‘Bless’ Same Sex Marriage, or Civil Partnerships, the Church of England will be in violation of the “clear and canonical teaching of the Bible”, and it will lead to “impaired communion with many provinces of the Anglican Communion”.
The role of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, as a “moral leader, and a figure of unity within the Communion” will also be “severely jeopardised”.

Global South Fellowship of Anglicans Press Release 24/01/2023 (see Appendix 2 for full text)

Juba: 25 January 2023

It is such a privilege to be sitting in a teaching space designed to facilitate a decade of discipleship in the ECSS. I’m listening again to Archbishop Justin Badi Arama, sitting alongside Doug Ingram from Relay Trust who are supporting some of the exciting projects ahead. 

The Primate, as the Archbishop is known, (for South Sudan has many Internal Provinces and hence many Archbishops), is talking about planting seeds for growth in young people and children. He has a heart to strengthen the whole church and see generations of Anglican disciples in a country that I’m told already has the fourth largest Anglican membership in the Communion (after Nigeria, England and Uganda – but in regular Sunday Church attendance England may well slip down that list). 

It’s strange to English ears to hear such a robust promotion of Anglicanism! At home the best that is often said of the Anglican way is that it’s ‘a middle way’,  a ‘via media’ between old puritanism and Catholicism and possibly a via media between any two extreme ethical or theological positions you might think, So Coe Anglicanism is ‘a broad church’.  So unless pushed by external influences it seems tolerant, inclusive and, well, nice. But the breadth effectively means there is little by way of shared value or vision within its disparate membership. As a CoE Anglican you can genuflect and say your Hail Mary’s or recite the 39 articles including the one denouncing popery. You can hold mutually exclusive positions to your neighbouring parish priest and the CoE will do its best to say that this incoherence is in fact its strength. 

But the Episcopal Church in South Sudan is a different beast. It has two sources to thank for that as the Archbishop is now outlining. The first is the legacy of how the Anglican gospel arrived there, and the clear and emphatic message and structure the Church Mission Society (CMS) brought. The second is the East African Revival. 

The CMS heritage means the ECSS has an almost homogenous identity – at least theologically for it has many complicating factors that arise from the different tribal groups in its mix. It can therefore be crystal clear on its values and theology. And when you have a common understanding of what the gospel mission is you are called to its abundantly easier to issue a clarion call to grow your denomination and see it prosper. Most UK Anglicans would struggle to say the same for our church (unless they happen to feel they are responsible for its universal growth). 

Archbishop Justin is now talking about Anglican Spirituality. He asks the group to work out what that is by firstly defining the group who outflank them in liturgy on the one hand and in contemporary style and appeal on the other. The group agrees that Roman Catholics can be easily spotted by their imagery, service order, crucifixes and robes. Pentecostals on the other flank are without liturgy, often have everyone talking at once and have no formal attire for clergy. (Ironically, I note to myself, that’s a bit like many of the UK Anglicans most similar in theology to ECSS). So in the ECSS Anglican christians have liturgy, order in worship (hierarchy of ministry) and other quirks! 

Now this is interesting for the church in the UK because with our many troubles there is going to be a big temptation/pull/opportunity(?) to look around the world and say, ‘if we don’t like our bishops what sort of bishop might we come under.’ One possible place might be the ECSS where Archbishop Justin is not just the International Chair of SOMA but also the leader of an increasingly admired group called the ‘Global South Fellowship of Anglican’ – a less militant and slower to dissent group than GAFCON, but one that is clear it needs to contend for historical orthodoxy if the CoE, and Episcopal Churches in N. America (among others) depart from that faith once delivered through a change in liturgy (around Same Sex Blessings/Marriage). So what is at the heart of ECSS spirituality according to Archbishop Justin, and could CoE Evangelicals and Charismatics find themselves nostalgic/homesick for a faith that as I describe it might feel like one we evangelicals have left behind as much as some of the liberals?

Every (coherent) denomination has its own spirituality. ECSS Anglicans have a clear one too. In Archbishop Justin’s words it is the spirituality of the prayer book. By this he means the historic 1662 Book of Common Prayer and its contemporary language revisions that do not alter the doctrine.

Archbishop Justin Badi Arama receiving greetings and a message from SOMA team leader Revd Buli Sihlali

Anglican Spirituality is the spirituality of the prayer book. That shapes our life, way of prayer and how to celebrate life. The spirituality is based on parish life. That is where a good Anglican has private prayer, then daily office, and then you have the Eucharist. Anglicans like to go into their church and sit privately alone, or in their family with their children daily at the “family altar”. A good Anglican will always gather their family daily to pray with them. Then we have the daily office in the parish church. You confess your sins, get absolution, There is a routine you go through. A good Anglican will always go every morning in their Parish Church, Then the third is the Eucharist. The Eucharist is used as a way of disciplining Christians, if you don’t behave you don’t get it and that is painful.’ 

Archbishop Justin Badi on Anglican identity and spirituality.

In reality only 3 members of the training course put up their hands to say they practice the daily office in parish church discipline, but the standard was clearly set. For Justin: 

“The prayer book is actually the holy Scriptures transformed into the rule of life. For Anglicans the law of praying the law of believing. What is continually expressed in prayer is what shapes what the believers believe.” 

Archbishop Justin Badi

HE wants them to see the Psalms and confession are key at the beginning: Like Moses we need to anticipate we are coming on holy ground in prayer and ‘take off your sandals’ The rest of the office is then saying and singing scriptures such as the venite (Psalm 95) until they embed deep into your soul, and a benediction so we go into our day having received God’s blessing. 

Now I am a (reluctant) convert to the Anglican faith, and have come to enjoy much of it, but I have never heard it defended in such a way, at least not by a low-church evangelical. My own stream know more about American mega churches of the past 40 years and insta-pastors than we do about these Anglican formation traditions. Perhaps ironically some of the more recent USA conference speakers doing the rounds in conference after conference in the UK charismatic scene keep reminding us of what we had known. John Mark Comer, Glenn Packhiam, and even the Emotionally Healthy crew, and our own Pete Grieg all seem to be saying you need rhythms, rest, routine to not crash and fall… well now I’m hearing we have wells of Anglican grace to draw from where we can find just that. 

As he lectures on ++Justin is fighting for the soul of a prayer book Anglicanism. He’s found it a treasure worth fighting for. This is the spirituality of the book which points us back to and immerses us in the Bible. Part of being a prayer book Anglican is to read through the bible seasonally – letting the lectionary guide us into the riches of seasonal rhythm and depth of encounter with God in his word… 

But the prayer book alone was not enough. ECSS has another parent, and this is one that has more in common with our Celtic routes in the 6-7Century UK than our reformation (partial) ‘rebirth’ that facilitated the adulterous tendencies of Henry VIII.  When it seemed like prayer book Christianity was failing ECSS was supercharged in a costly, demanding but extraordinary revival. 

Archbishop Justin then tells the compelling and extraordinary story of the ECSS revival movement, marked by a fierce repentance and turning to God by tribes that simple Anglicanism had not been able to reach.The whole story is at the end of this blog and worth reading. Revival preaching named and shamed evil and people turned from witchcraft, licentiousness and adultery en masse. Fornicators were expected to burn their mattresses publicly. Spiritual powers were challenged and whole communities transformed. The ECSS was rebirthed in revival and the legacy has stuck. It cost the first preachers tremendously but it was a Spirit of Holiness that they can look back to in this rebirth, and definitely not an accommodating ‘spirit of the age’.

So from these two great influences: Prayer Book and Revival comes ECSS. But these are two demanding parents with expectations that may prove hard to live up to. The Archbishop is aware that “The spirit of revival movement is dying as we behave like unbelievers” and longs that ECSS believers (and of course clerics) will live up to these key markers:

So if a person receives Christ out of revival how will they behave?

  1. The first is literal and figurative: carrying the cross We must take our burden to the cross. We are marked by the cross. He points out that So we mark children/believers with the sign of cross at baptism, wewear a cross when alive, and we put a cross on our grave when we die. In ECSS every Christian carries a cross. 
  2. The second is hidden and personal,, but clearly taught and necessary: Repentance and forgiveness of sin. Frequent confession of our sin is needed. As was seen in the Revival it needs rooting out. 
  3. Third: this must overflow into action: Restitution – we are encouraged to put things right, by yourself without someone needing to make you. e.g. pay back anything you stole / confess what you’ve done wrong… that brings freedom, joy and victory for believers. 
  4. Then one for every day life: Walking in the light: Every Christian is expected to walk in the light. Keep things clear and above board. Don’t hide what you do. Don’t embezzle or have affairs. Walk in the light.. keep relationships public. 
  5. The fifth is a beautiful and humble one which he illustrates personally. He says we must have a life of brokenness. Acknowledge our own weaknesses and faults. Accept there are things you don’t know. Don’t say ‘leave me alone to live my life’. Accept correction. 
  6. This is maintained by a deliberately ordered life of prayer. Private, family and public (as above). Pray without ceasing
  7. But we can’t do this on our own we need: Fellowship meetings. As a committed member Christian you must be a member of a fellowship. Prayer groups/fellowship groups etc. 
  8. Reading of the bible – committing yourself to a time every day to read a portion of scriptures (lectionary preferred) before going out so you have something in your mind. Encourage Christians to have a verse to mention: “what did God say t you today?” 
  9. Witnessing: tell someone about Christ – what God has done to you. Speak to christians and non-christians and your witness will encourage and bring people to light. 
  10. Attend conventions: (especially SOMA one [my addition!]) and be ready to go on mission! That is part of ECSS spirituality which comes out of revival. Always be ready to go out. Always be ready to be sent if Bishop wants to send a team go for it. 
  11. Then there are two highly practical ones;  The first of the two (obviously an uphill battle for those who know Africa) is Time management: ECSS Christians have to manage time, use it professionally and promptly. Don’t waste time.
  12. Then self-care (but this is more challenging than it seems): as a Christian born again he argues your life must be hygienic. God told Adam to go forth, multiply and subdue/rule the land. Every member of Christian should look after their body well. Be smart. Includes tidiness in our house and in the compound. A house should be is neat and well organised. A body is smart and well cared for. Food should be nourishing and well prepared. [I gulp and move on]
  13. Finally, environment-care: – a late addition inspired not least by the climate catastrophe and campaigning work of organisations such as Arocha and Christian Aid as represented at Lambeth – but a key one for the future of South Sudan.

This has been the final day of my three days and two nights in South Sudan. The primate has been present daily throughout the excellent SEAN training this week and is clearly relishing teaching his third session so on Anglican identity. 

I’m trying to imagine him in a room of post-wimberite Anglicans in the UK. Most of us are utterly ignorant of an Anglican identity that he says can feed the soul of a nation. Many of us moved far away from practices that he says sustains and passes on faith to generations to come. And yet it’s not hard to imagine. 

He looks at me and says something affirming about me across the room. I’ve been challenged but also presented with a version of my faith that I would like to attain to. I’m metaphorically dusting off my online lectionary as he speaks, wondering about family altars, remembering the joy of silent prayer with morning in Yambio cathedral, wondering where I would be if God did not sustain me aged 20 through a newly found daily office recited with David Goodhew in my college chapel, and reawakens at St Matthew’s Walsall by Mark Ireland and Wolstanton Parish with Jonathan Eades and Mark McIntyre in my early 20s. 

A friend I share this with said what would it be like if Archbishop Justin Badi Arama chaired our General Synod ‘Pastoral Guidance Committee?’

This may not be a million miles away from possible (at least for some). In the GSFA press release Global South Archbishops promise the orthodox clergy and laity in the Church of England, that:

 “The GSFA is committed to care for those who abide by the ‘faith once delivered’, and who want to be true to the Communion, and its foundational roots, while responding to a changing world. In a word, we seek to continue to ‘shepherd’ those who want to be faithful to the covenant-keeping God revealed in Christ and the Scriptures. This includes Orthodox Anglicans in England, bishops, clergy and laity. We will do this as best as possible in a non-schismatic way.

GSFA press release 24/01/2023

Reflecting on what I told him about my visit to Juba my English clergy friend said:

“I love the idea of clearer, cohesive, coherent vision and a recapture of the disciplines of prayer (Private, family, public), or cross carrying (going to start advocating that I think!), Bible reading (with a verse of the day in your pocket for conversation – so it could lead to personal witness to others during the day), a fresh call to integrity and Holy living (not getting rid of the prohibitions of Issues, etc)”

Millennial clergyman in Church of England.

Of course discipline for the sake of discipline and imitating past glories can easily go stale. I have a reflection that ‘the enemy of the next revival are those who went through the last revival’ which I think is an RT Kendall quote. Harking back to Anglican tradition or East African Revival might be in danger of being that. It might be a formula that becomes a legalism that becomes dead religion and indeed in places it has done.

But fuelled and inspired by the very thing that SOMA brings, a meaningful encounter with the Holy Spirt and an experience of God that means the motivation and ability to see these habits formed comes from within and is made possible by Him, I wonder if this Anglicanism might not be a far better model for discipleship after all than our so called attractional (consumer) christianity. Maybe the reformers who made the most of Henry VIII’s sin had it right as they honed the prayer book. We could do worse than come back under this model if/when we’re looking for oversight. 

But it does makes you think what would it would like for UK Anglicans to come under such a leadership and clear view of Anglicanism. By and large we’ve enjoyed a glorious anarchy – life and let live (until we started dying). This would be signing up to an oversight with genuine expectations. I wonder if we’d be ready for such growth and to learn again from a church that is a child of the CoE, but all grown up, while we are fading into a ‘waiting for God’ nursing home. 

Appendix 1: The ECSS Revival Story

Here’s that story in ++Justin’s own words:

All the pioneer leaders of ECSS were nurtured in the spirit of the revival movement right from the start and they matured and started their ministry in the spirit of the revival movement.  The first wave of ECSS revival movement started in Western Equatoria in 1938 by a CMS missionary called Richard Jones. This wave of revival shook the whole of Western Equatoria from Yambio, Maridi to Mundri. And later on, it moved to the Nugent School at Loka in central Equatoria where students from different regions of South Sudan got converted in to the spirit of revival. 

 In Yambio, Jones described the Christian community as “a sink of iniquity and a haunt of drunkards and adulterers”.  The preaching of Jones against such evils was like a wild fire that touched everything, and this was the first of its kind in Zande land. The preaching touched everybody including the district administrators who were British citizens. With anger, Jones was ordered by the district administrators to pack and leave Yambio immediately. However, the preaching of Jones had already impacted many converts who had destroyed all their traditional gods. Those who used to brew beer broke all the beer pots and container used for magic and fetish activities. In Maridi, people brought out all the mats on which they had fornicated or had committed adultery on it and burned it out in the presence of the evangelists. Yeremaya was one of those who completely surrendered his life to God. This spirit of revival convicted him to train as an evangelist and later to the Ordained ministry. He later became the first bishop of Yambio which covered the area from Tombura to Kajokeji.  

In Mundri, the greatest impact of the revival movement amongst the Moru people was that the Moru schoolboys received the revival preaching while in school and took the message back to their home area. Elinana Ngalamu who was impacted by the preaching of Richard Jones while at Bishop Gwynne college adopted the style of revival preaching and became a great preacher in the schools in Mundri and all over the Moru land. The revival movement which sprang up amongst the Moru people has continued to the present day and continues to give life to the Moru Church. The preachings of Elinana were critical about the evils of the missionaries and the Government officials. Many school teachers and government officials got convicted and repented of their sins. But the District commissioner was furious and ordered the arrest of Rev Elinana and his group of evangelists and was put in prison in 1962.  Shortly after his imprisonment, the Rev Elinana Ngalamu became the assistant bishop of Sudan based in Rumbek which covered the whole Dinka land and the Moru land. He later became the first Archbishop of the province of Sudan leading the whole province in the spirit of revival movement.

In central Equatoria, the revival preaching of Richard jones made a great impact at the Nugent School in Loka.  In the school at Loka, Richard directly preached against all kind of evils in the lives of students and teachers. He mostly was harsh in condemning the adulterous life of the teachers. 

The later wave of revival in central Equatoria come from Northern Uganda through Kajokeji in 1949 to Yei. This has been fueled more by those who returned from refuge after the Addis Ababa agreement. Strong root of revival movement has stayed in the area to this day. The second Archbishop of ECS, The Most Rev Benjamin wani was the product of this movement. 

From Loka, the revival movement spread through the local teachers and students who had been touched by Richard Jones’ revival preaching. One of the teachers, Jon Majak took the revival message to Akot, and preached to the people of Akot. The result was the first large–scale movement of Christian conversion amongst the Dinka people. 

Daniel Deng Atong, a senior teacher at Loka also carried back the revival message to Malek. He pioneered a highly successful evangelization across greater Bor region. and Daniels message was highly received more than the message of the missionaries. This then gave a great encouragement to the missionaries and they prepared Daniel for an ordained ministry. Daniel later became the first indigenous South Sudanese bishop to be consecrated in 1955. 

Although after bishop Daniel Deng Atong, the seeds of the revival movement did not grow faster, but God brought bishop Nathaniel Garang, to water the soils of the whole greater Bor and all the seeds of revival that had stayed in the soil for long time sprang up in a forceful way. Some faithful evangelists, and the jieng youths who call themselves “Jol WO Liech” took the fore front of the revival transformation and they began to evangelize, teaching new Christian songs, and confronting the locan traditional spiritual powers, and also erecting places of worships in all villages.  Across the Bor area, the overwhelming majority of shrines to the ancestral powers, great and small, had been levelled.  These has been propelled by the sufferings inflicted by the wars as composed in most of the Jieng new composed songs.

The zeal and depth of the Christian faith that is found within the Episcopal Church of South Sudan owes much to suffering and the revival movement. (the ECSS cross demonstrates that)

 During the first period of civil war (1955 to 1972) it was the people of equatorial, the Bari speaking people, the Moru and Zande who suffered the greatest displacement and, in the process, embraced Christian faith in large numbers. 

During the present civil conflict of the SPLA, it has been the Nilotes, the Nuer and Jieng who have experienced unprecedented upheaval, and simultaneously embraced Christianity in their hundreds of thousands.  

The contribution that the revival has made to the Episcopal Church of South Sudan is very significant. The zeal and depth of the Christian faith that is found within the Episcopal Church of South Sudan owes much to the revival movement. The pastors normally blend well with the revival and the work of evangelism goes more easily due to the itinerant preachers. 

APPENDIX 2: The GSFA Press Release in full:

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The Global South Fellowship of Anglican Churches (GSFA)

24 January 2023

IF the General Synod of the Church of England affirms the House of Bishops’ recommendations to ‘Bless’ Same Sex Marriage, or Civil Partnerships, the Church of England will be in violation of the “clear and canonical teaching of the Bible”, and it will lead to “impaired communion with many provinces of the Anglican Communion”.

The role of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, as a “moral leader, and a figure of unity within the Communion” will also be “severely jeopardised”. So says the Global South Fellowship of Anglican Churches (GSFA) which covers around 75% of Anglicans across the globe, ahead of the Synod’s London meetings, February 6-9.

The House of Bishops’ Response to the six-year Living in Love and Faith ‘listening’ process says lawyers have advised them that the official Doctrine of Marriage would remain, despite the Church, from now on “joyfully welcoming and recognising permanent, stable same sex relationships” through services and prayers of blessing.

The Most Reverend Justin Badi, Primate of South Sudan, and Chairman of the GSFA responded, saying: “What the English bishops are recommending constitutes unfaithfulness to the God who has spoken through His written word. Their Response belies the loss of confidence by the bishops in the authority and clarity of the Bible as we have received it. They are re-writing God’s law for His creation; laws that are re-affirmed by Christ in the Gospel accounts.”

Last summer, at the Lambeth Conference in Canterbury, the GSFA sounded a global call to re-affirm ‘Lambeth 1.10’ (the Anglican Communion’s official teaching that the only place for sexual intimacy is marriage between one man and one woman for life, and specifically rules out blessing of same sex relationships). Archbishop Badi says the bishops’ proposals are “in clear contravention of Lambeth 1.10” , and “will lead to consequences for the Communion if the General Synod affirms. We therefore call on Synod to reject the bishops’ proposals on blessing same sex unions.”

Archbishop Badi said the GSFA “laments the bishops’ collective failure to keep their ordination/consecration vows to defend biblical truth by their life and doctrine, and are dangerously accommodating the culture of the day”. He said their 53-page Response: “turns out to be a farcical compromise, with many contradictions, and no theological case made for blessing same sex unions.” The GSFA says that the proposed pastoral resource of Prayers of Love and Faith for blessing and affirming gay couples, contradicts Holy Scripture taken as a whole, and in particular, the bible’s teaching on marriage and sexual ethics.

Theology apart, the GSFA also says the attitude towards the Anglican Communion shown by the House of Bishops in their Response once again demonstrates a problematic relationship between the Mother Province and the world-wide Anglican church.

Archbishop Badi said: “Anglican ecclesiology requires that provinces don’t act independently of each other. Even more so for the CofE in its special historical and ecclesiastical role in the Anglican Communion. Assent by General Synod would show disregard for the wider Communion (the majority of whom hold to orthodox teaching on Marriage & sexuality), and will increase the pressure for the Communion to fragment. Several GSFA provinces are already in ‘impaired communion’ with revisionist provinces like The Episcopal Church (USA), the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Church in Wales. If Synod votes to back the bishops’ recommendations, then it is foreseeable that several Global South provinces will also be in impaired Communion with the Church of England.”

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However, the primate says this does not mean GSFA provinces will leave the Communion. He added: “It would only double their desire to reset and revitalise the Communion along biblical lines, and in keeping with its formative theology, ecclesiology and ethos. The Anglican Church has always seen itself as an expression of God’s ‘one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church.’

“GSFA provinces are committed to our calling to be ‘a holy remnant’ within the Communion, marked by its loyalty to God and the plain teaching of holy scripture – whatever the cultural winds of the day. But a Synod vote in favour of the bishops’ proposals would be a major step in revisionism and sadly, alienate the Mother Church from large swathes of the Communion. It will inevitably lead to a re-configuration, and a re-structuring of the Communion as we currently know it.”

Archbishop Badi says it would also remove the Archbishop of Canterbury’s moral right to be an Instrument of Unity for the Communion. He said: “Archbishop Welby cannot compartmentalise his role as Primate of England from his role as ‘first among equals (head of the world-wide Communion)’. He says he will not personally use the ‘prayers of blessing’, but his “extremely joyfully celebratory” welcome of the blessing prayers, and his leadership of the House of Bishops in proposing this Response, means that he is actually advocating false teaching from a biblical point of view.”

The GSFA says if any Communion province was considering changing its Doctrine of Marriage, and/or its Pastoral Guidelines, then this should first be discussed and decided by the Primates’ Meeting. That is, if a global Anglican Church as a ‘communion of churches’ is to be maintained, rather than “a loose network, or federation of autonomous national or regional Churches,” he explained.

To orthodox clergy and laity in the Church of England, Archbishop Badi was keen to send a clear message of encouragement and support. He said: “The GSFA is committed to care for those who abide by the ‘faith once delivered’, and who want to be true to the Communion, and its foundational roots, while responding to a changing world. In a word, we seek to continue to ‘shepherd’ those who want to be faithful to the covenant-keeping God revealed in Christ and the Scriptures. This includes Orthodox Anglicans in England, bishops, clergy and laity. We will do this as best as possible in a non-schismatic way.

“We will also be especially mindful to care for, and encourage those who are same sex attracted, but whose love of the Lord, and His teaching, mean they abstain from same sex unions. Our mission of ‘truth and grace’ in a broken world will also include welcoming and relating to those in some form of same sex relationship. We will welcome them as persons into our church communities, relate to them as they present themselves, and seek to introduce them to the transforming love of Christ that heals our brokenness, and helps all of us sinners to be continually transformed more and more into His likeness.”

Finally, the GSFA leader says he believes that particularly over the last decade, the debate on marriage and sexuality has distracted, if not diverted, the life in many parts of the Communion, and certainly the Church of England, from the main task of the Church: proclaiming Christ and making disciples of all who live in the nation, including those who increasingly, in a confused and morally ambivalent society, struggle with issues of identity. He concluded: “The mission Christ entrusted to His Church must cause us to take the Gospel out to those who have yet to know and respond to the good news of Jesus Christ, and to live out the kingdom in a holistic way. We will, in the grace of God, both defend and propagate this death-defeating, life-transforming Gospel.”

The GSFA has recently invited orthodox provinces across the Communion to formally sign up as full Covenant Members of the Fellowship. It is also in the process of offering Associate Membership to Anglican Churches and organisations within revisionist provinces who are seeking to be a ‘holy remnant’, and who may require support from the global body of Anglicans, including alternative episcopal oversight at some point.